Descriptive and sequence analysis is used in order to provide insight into spatial and chronological outcomes of whole migration trajectories of Senegalese migrants with a focus on four surveyed countries. The structure of migration patterns is studied through a step-wise longitudinal approach, in order to define how transits are embedded in broader migration trajectories. The article shows how transit can be a mobility strategy adopted by migrants at different moments and geographical contexts of their migration career, assuming different characteristics and roles all along the life-course.
Moreover, traditional understandings of migration and migrants have focused on predominantly dichotomous categorisations which proved to be inadequate to address the multiple, shifting nature of migration 1 Collyer, de Haas, forthcoming. The knowledge of the geographical and longitudinal structure of mobility is in fact preliminary to the understanding of migration processes and driving forces.
Instead, there are many. Transit migration is a process rather than a migration status, a phase that cuts across various migrant categories, irregular as well as regular migrants, voluntary as well as forced migrants, workers as well as students, etc. Furthermore transits can take place in very different conditions, with the most disparate reasons and intentions, leading to multiple often unpredictable outcomes. Transits may in fact last for considerable periods of time, with waiting periods varying from weeks to several months and, in some cases, years.
Notwithstanding, as a result of this complexity, the transit phenomenon needs to be further problematized and studied, as it is a relevant emerging phenomenon in a rapidly changing international scenario. In turn, this has led to a internationalization of migration policies, with relevant consequences in terms of externalization of controls to neighbouring African countries through bilateral and multilateral agreements on border control and readmission. It is increasingly shared among migration analysts that increasing phenomenon of transit migration is linked to the progressive closure of international borders, with the tightening of the entry procedures and the enforcing of the control measures.
Although several studies have retraced migratory routes mainly for irregular migration directed to Europe, they omit to account for the routes of documented migrants. However, they notably fail to explore the onward movements once migrants have arrived in Europe or to follow circulations and permanent returns to origin countries.
To meet these standards, transit migration will be analyzed in this article as part of broader mobility strategies, and in doing so, some of the assumptions shared and reproduced in public and common scientific discourse will be questioned. From which countries do they generate and where do they lead to? Which position do they assume in broader migration trajectories? The research yielded a new data set on Afro-European migration between and , through comparative surveys in both sending Senegal and receiving countries France, Italy, Spain , and consisted in an household survey held in the region of Dakar and a biographic survey undertaken in Senegal, Italy, France and Spain.
For the individual biographic survey, a second phase of sampling in Europe consisted in interviewing eligible 3 migrants whose contact had been provided by the households surveyed in Senegal. Data used in this paper are referred to the individual sample of current migrants interviewed in Europe added up to return migrants interviewed in Senegal.
Women were over-represented in European samples, with the objective of including an equal share of males and females, in order to allow gender analyses 4. Thanks to their retrospective nature, the MAFE data allow to generate unique comprehensive and longitudinal quantitative evidence on the routes used by Senegalese and other African migrants all along their life course, allowing to retrace the whole migration trajectory of individuals through their different steps. To have a full picture of this second type of migration, the research should have ideally sampled migrants also in African destinations.
Nevertheless, as we will see in next chapters, intra-continental migration inevitably emerges as an essential part of the Senegalese mobility scenario. As an example, several surveyed women declared they had not migrated by their own will, but upon family obligations, typically as a result of reunification with their husbands or other close relatives. This does not necessarily mean that they were strictly forced to migrate, but such cases should remind us how the decision to migrate and the conditions in which migration occur deal with multiple structural [but also individual and familiar] constraints, although to highly varying degrees ibidem.
The other way around, migrants entering or residing in a country illegally can acquire legal residency through obtaining work, marriage or regularization. As a result both short and long term transits will be taken in account. This phenomenon is in fact intimately connected to subjective intention albeit submitted to various constraints at different degrees to move to further aimed destinations associated with the temporary character of settlement in intermediate transit countries.
Therefore the application of transit definition to a certain migration phenomenon would probably vary according to when the question is asked and would change over time, through the filter of the progressive experienced migration outcomes.
Early human migrations
As Van Liempt suggests, ideally the same migrants should be interviewed at different moments along their migration process, in order to be able to capture the changing dynamics of trajectories and to confront the intentions and perceptions of countries prior to moving on, with the final outcomes of these migration processes and how they eventually re-qualify and re-define their experience. That implies that all the steps since first migration till the survey time will be taken into account in order to study transits, as pieces of the complex mobility puzzle.
For this purpose trajectories will be broken into pieces, i. These units represent migratory events longer or shorter than a year and their sequencing in time jointly constitute migratory routes. This is why the transits, which are mainly concentrated at the beginning of migration career are displayed in the upper side of the chart.
These information will be looked at in depth and integrated through some detailed tables. We find a similar pattern for the graph. It means that this migrant in the MAFE survey year was transiting in Italy as a first migratory step, planning to continue in a further country. Here we can observe the total number of transits spent in each area and their distribution according to their length. The information on duration is here complemented, as in the previous sequences, as already mentioned, it was omitted for visualization reasons.
Timing the first human migration into eastern Asia
Yet, despite the prolonged duration, they can still be considered as provisional settlement, oriented to onward migration. The data clearly show that for the sampled migrants, half of the transits took place in this space, with a strong predominance of West African But after he became more radical politically, he left his Zionist ideals for Communist ones, and neither he nor Weiner considered the possibility of settling in Palestine.
Their decisions to pursue their ideals elsewhere are telling, since as left-wing Jews the option of going to Palestine would have been an obvious one, but clearly their left-wing commitments were not aligned with a Zionist variant. Sharon was born in Poland and came to the Bauhaus in via Palestine, where he had emigrated in In contrast, the architects who emigrated to Palestine were not always forced to leave behind their ideals.
In the beginning, however, the term was part of an anti-foreigner discourse and as such Meyer and his brigade would have fallen under this rubric. This leads us to question political ideas and their relation to cosmopolitanism and globalization. Le Corbusier can be considered perhaps the first truly global architect In the end though, both the Soviet Union and Vichy rejected his ideas.
Now, let us consider Meyer as a counterexample. After having been accused as a Marxist by the Dessau authorities, Meyer embraced the accusation and worked in the Soviet Union until it was no longer feasible. When reading the texts he wrote in his Soviet period, Meyer explicitly retrofitted Marxism onto his Bauhaus work. Afterwards, he returned to his native Switzerland, and later he accepted an invitation to Mexico where he thought that the spirit of the Mexican Revolution still dominated the politics of the country. In brief, Meyer was not at home in the world. He did not move with ease from country to country.
In fact, he stayed for long periods in each destination. We can state that Meyer circulated through defined areas of the world due to his political ideas. Moreover, Meyer chose his destinations in accordance with his own views of world politics and he attempted to use his destinations to inform and position himself relative to sympathetic political scenarios. The Eastern Bloc speaks to an alternative globalization, or a fragmented version of cosmopolitanism.
The main difference is that homelessness is different from itinerancy, and it is this last concept qualifies better the reality of some of the studied architects. Although he was in authority positions a series of times, he was more of a political intransigent than a political animal even though this idea can be challenged if one considers all the lip service he performed for Stalin, exemplified by the lectures he gave in Western Europe between and Even those who remained an extra year left the Soviet Union by November at the latest, if they could.
The first migrations out of Africa - The Australian Museum
Those who stayed usually had no choice, and ended in the Gulag accused of espionage. Meyer left the Soviet Union in No matter how much Meyer and the other members of the Red Bauhaus Brigade had identified with the Soviet project, they could not live in service of that project. Even though Meyer in some capacity kept on defending Stalinism, he ultimately was well aware that the Stalinist project excluded him. My larger project is an attempt to expose some aspects of this Third Migration, to question what was lost by its interrupted development, and to understand what can be learned from this unexplored legacy.
Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons from one country into another that is not their native country. In the two terms, the focus is either on the receiving country or the country of departure. This essay will use as an alternative the term migration , which refers more generally to movement like that of birds in wintertime , and is also closer to the term itinerant.
Helfrich and William Whitaker eds. MIT Press, Other modern architects from Germany also used London as an intermediate transit point, as was the case with Erich Mendelsohn who arrived in London in and formed a partnership with the Russian-born Serge Chermayeff who also later moved to the United States. From London, Mendelsohn moved initially to Palestine, before immigrating in to the United States.
- An Extremely Early Migration of Modern Humans Out Of Africa.
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Interestingly, the architectural historians Nikolaus Pevsner, Rudolf Wittkower, and Emil Kaufmann all arrived in London in but, unlike the architects, they remained in place. The author is indebted to Thomas Flierl for sharing these documents. Rolf Sklarek settled in Los Angeles.
Jeannine Fiedler, trans. Miriam Neumann and William H. He held this post for five years. Anna Bostock, Cambridge, Mass. Press, . Daniel Talesnik is a trained architect specializing in modern and contemporary architecture and urbanism, with a particular focus on architectural pedagogy and relationships between architecture and political ideologies.
Daniel Talesnik. Plan Migration of Architects.
Conversely, immigra Kurt Ju Agrandir Original jpeg, k.