Aidens Brain : The Underfunded Autism Epedemic

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Pharmacotherapy is used in the treatment of mental illness through the use of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and the use of elements such as lithium. For some people, physical exercise can improve mental as well as physical health. Playing sports, walking, cycling or doing any form of physical activity trigger the production of various hormones, sometimes including endorphins , which can elevate a person's mood.

Studies have shown that in some cases, physical activity can have the same impact as antidepressants when treating depression and anxiety.

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Activity therapies, also called recreation therapy and occupational therapy, promote healing through active engagement. Making crafts can be a part of occupational therapy.


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Walks can be a part of recreation therapy. In recent years colouring has been recognised as an activity which has been proven to significantly lower the levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety in many studies. Expressive therapies or creative arts therapies are a form of psychotherapy that involves the arts or art-making. These therapies include music therapy , art therapy , dance therapy , drama therapy, and poetry therapy. It has been proven that Music therapy is an effective way of helping people who suffer from a mental health disorder.

Psychotherapy is the general term for scientific based treatment of mental health issues based on modern medicine.

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Group therapy involves any type of therapy that takes place in a setting involving multiple people. It can include psychodynamic groups, expressive therapy groups, support groups including the Twelve-step program , problem-solving and psychoeducation groups. The practice of mindfulness meditation has several mental health benefits, such as bringing about reductions in depression , anxiety and stress. The Heartfulness meditation program has proven to show significant improvements in the state of mind of health-care professionals.

Mental health

They benefited in aspects of burnouts and emotional wellness. People with anxiety disorders participated in a stress-reduction program conducted by researchers from the Mental Health Service Line at the W. The participants practiced mindfulness meditation.

After the study was over, it was concluded that the "mindfulness meditation training program can effectively reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic and can help maintain these reductions in patients with generalized anxiety disorder , panic disorder , or panic disorder with agoraphobia. Spiritual counselors meet with people in need to offer comfort and support and to help them gain a better understanding of their issues and develop a problem-solving relation with spirituality. These types of counselors deliver care based on spiritual, psychological and theological principles.

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Social work in mental health, also called psychiatric social work, is a process where an individual in a setting is helped to attain freedom from overlapping internal and external problems social and economic situations, family and other relationships, the physical and organizational environment, psychiatric symptoms, etc. It aims for harmony, quality of life , self-actualization and personal adaptation across all systems.

Psychiatric social workers are mental health professionals that can assist patients and their family members in coping with both mental health issues and various economic or social problems caused by mental illness or psychiatric dysfunctions and to attain improved mental health and well-being. They are vital members of the treatment teams in Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in hospitals.

They are employed in both outpatient and inpatient settings of a hospital, nursing homes, state and local governments, substance abuse clinics, correctional facilities, health care services In the United States, social workers provide most of the mental health services. According to government sources, 60 percent of mental health professionals are clinically trained social workers , 10 percent are psychiatrists , 23 percent are psychologists , and 5 percent are psychiatric nurses. Mental health social workers in Japan have professional knowledge of health and welfare and skills essential for person's well-being.

Their social work training enables them as a professional to carry out Consultation assistance for mental disabilities and their social reintegration; Consultation regarding the rehabilitation of the victims; Advice and guidance for post-discharge residence and re-employment after hospitalized care, for major life events in regular life, money and self-management and in other relevant matters in order to equip them to adapt in daily life. Social workers provide individual home visits for mentally ill and do welfare services available, with specialized training a range of procedural services are coordinated for home, workplace and school.

In an administrative relationship, Psychiatric social workers provides consultation, leadership, conflict management and work direction. Psychiatric social workers who provides assessment and psychosocial interventions function as a clinician, counselor and municipal staff of the health centers.

Social workers play many roles in mental health settings, including those of case manager , advocate , administrator, and therapist. The major functions of a psychiatric social worker are promotion and prevention , treatment , and rehabilitation. Social workers may also practice:.

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Psychiatric social workers conduct psychosocial assessments of the patients and work to enhance patient and family communications with the medical team members and ensure the inter-professional cordiality in the team to secure patients with the best possible care and to be active partners in their care planning. Depending upon the requirement, social workers are often involved in illness education, counseling and psychotherapy. In all areas, they are pivotal to the aftercare process to facilitate a careful transition back to family and community.

During the s, Dorothea Lynde Dix , a retired Boston teacher who is considered the founder of the Mental Health Movement, began a crusade that would change the way people with mental disorders were viewed and treated. Dix was not a social worker; the profession was not established until after her death in However, her life and work were embraced by early psychiatric social workers, and she is considered one of the pioneers of psychiatric social work along with Elizabeth Horton, who in was the first psychiatric social worker in the New York hospital system, and others.

Community Mental Health Centers Act was passed in This policy encouraged the deinstitutionalisation of people with mental illness. Later, mental health consumer movement came by s. A consumer was defined as a person who has received or is currently receiving services for a psychiatric condition. People with mental disorders and their families became advocates for better care. Building public understanding and awareness through consumer advocacy helped bring mental illness and its treatment into mainstream medicine and social services.

Role of social workers made an impact with invasion of Iraq and War in Afghanistan —present social workers worked out of the NATO hospital in Afghanistan and Iraq bases. They made visits to provide counseling services at forward operating bases. Twenty-two percent of the clients were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder , 17 percent with depression, and 7 percent with alcohol abuse.

In , the Marine Corps had a record 52 suicides. Mental health services, is a loose network of services ranging from highly structured inpatient psychiatric units to informal support groups, where psychiatric social workers indulges in the diverse approaches in multiple settings along with other paraprofessional workers. Native North Americans understood mental trouble as an indication of an individual who had lost their equilibrium with the sense of place and belonging in general, and with the rest of the group in particular.

In native healing beliefs, health and mental health were inseparable, so similar combinations of natural and spiritual remedies were often employed to relieve both mental and physical illness. These communities and families greatly valued holistic approaches for preventative health care. Indigenous peoples in Canada have faced cultural oppression and social marginalization through the actions of European colonizers and their institutions since the earliest periods of contact.

Culture contact brought with it many forms of depredation.

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Economic, political, and religious institutions of the European settlers all contributed to the displacement and oppression of indigenous people. The first officially recorded treatment practices were in , when Quebec opened wards for the mentally ill. In the s social services were active through charity organizations and church parishes Social Gospel Movement.

Asylums for the insane were opened in in Saint John and New Brunswick. In in Toronto , when care for the mentally ill became institutionally based. Canada became a self-governing dominion in , retaining its ties to the British crown. During this period age of industrial capitalism began, which lead to a social and economic dislocation in many forms. By asylums were converted to hospitals and nurses and attendants were employed for the care of the mentally ill.

The first social work training began at the University of Toronto in In the s Dr. World War II profoundly affected attitudes towards mental health. The medical examinations of recruits revealed that thousands of apparently healthy adults suffered mental difficulties.

This knowledge changed public attitudes towards mental health, and stimulated research into preventive measures and methods of treatment. In the s Mental Health Act was amended to give consumers the right to choose treatment alternatives. Later the focus shifted to workforce mental health issues and environment.


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  6. It also has instructions regarding how to set up a care delivery system. The great sage Agastya was one of the 18 siddhas contributing to a system of medicine. This system has included the Agastiyar Kirigai Nool, a compendium of psychiatric disorders and their recommended treatments.

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    In the Mughal period Unani system of medicine was introduced by an Indian physician Unhammad in The 18th century was a very unstable period in Indian history, which contributed to psychological and social chaos in the Indian subcontinent. In , lunatic asylums were developed in Bombay Mumbai followed by Calcutta Kolkata in , and Madras Chennai in Later, the Indian Lunacy Act, was brought under this legislation.

    A rehabilitation programme was initiated between s and s for persons with mental illness at the Mysore Lunatic Asylum, and then an occupational therapy department was established during this period in almost each of the lunatic asylums. In this programme, persons with mental illness were involved in the field of agriculture for all activities.

    This programme is considered as the seed of origin of psychosocial rehabilitation in India. Berkeley-Hill, superintendent of the European Hospital now known as the Central Institute of Psychiatry CIP , established in , was deeply concerned about the improvement of mental hospitals in those days. In , the first post of psychiatric social worker was created in the child guidance clinic run by the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work established in , It is considered as the first documented evidence of social work practice in Indian mental health field.

    After Independence in , general hospital psychiatry units GHPUs were established to improve conditions in existing hospitals, while at the same time encouraging outpatient care through these units. In Amritsar Dr. Vidyasagar, instituted active involvement of families in the care of persons with mental illness. This was advanced practice ahead of its times regarding treatment and care. This methodology had a greater impact on social work practice in the mental health field especially in reducing the stigmatisation.

    Later the first trained psychiatric social worker was appointed in at the adult psychiatry unit of Yervada mental hospital, Pune. In various parts of the country, in mental health service settings, social workers were employed—in at a mental hospital in Amritsar, in at a child guidance clinic of the college of nursing, and in Delhi in at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and in at the Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital. In , the Madras Mental Hospital Now Institute of Mental Health , employed social workers to bridge the gap between doctors and patients.

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